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Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Heidelberg University , founded in , is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities.

Heidelberg was a seat of government of the former Electorate of the Palatinate and is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle , the Philosophers' Walk , and the Baroque old town.

Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley , on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.

The Neckar here flows in an east—west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of meters. The Neckar flows into the Rhine approximately 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim.

Heidelberg is on European walking route E1 Sweden - Umbria. Alongside the Philosophenweg Philosophers' Walk on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets , [6] and a wild population of Siberian swan geese , which can be seen mainly on the islands in the Neckar near the district of Bergheim.

Heidelberg is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe. The Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district.

This region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen , the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate Vorderpfalz , the administrative districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg, and the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis.

The Rhein-Neckar Triangle became a European metropolitan area in Heidelberg consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town.

In the central area are Altstadt the Old Town , Bergheim and Weststadt; in the north, Neuenheim and Handschuhsheim; in the east, Ziegelhausen and Schlierbach; in the south, Südstadt , Rohrbach, Emmertsgrund, and Boxberg; in the southwest, Kirchheim ; in the west, Pfaffengrund, Wieblingen, and a new district, named Bahnstadt , is built on land in Weststadt and Wieblingen.

The new district will have approximately 5,—6, residents and employment for 7, Further new residential space for 10,, residents was made available in Patrick Henry Village following the departure of the US Armed Forces.

Heidelberg has an oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb , defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald.

Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain , Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average.

The hillsides of the Odenwald favour clouding and precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January.

According to the German Meteorological Service , Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in Between , and , years ago [ citation needed ] , " Heidelberg Man " died at nearby Mauer.

His jaw bone was discovered in Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg , or "Holy Mountain".

Both places can still be identified. They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements that developed.

The Romans remained until AD, when the camp was conquered by Germanic tribes. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum.

Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century. The village Bergheim "Mountain Home" is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to AD.

Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg. The people gradually converted to Christianity.

In AD, the monastery of St. Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress.

Around , the Neuburg Monastery was founded in the Neckar valley. At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey in Modern Heidelberg can trace its roots to this 12th-century monastery.

The first reference to Heidelberg can be found in a document in Schönau Abbey dated to This is considered to be the town's founding date.

In , Heidelberg castle and its neighboring settlement were taken over by the house of Hohenstaufen. In , the Electorate of the Palatinate passed to the House of Welf through marriage.

In , Ludwig I, Duke of Bavaria acquired the Palatinate, as a consequence of which the castle came under his control. By , another castle had been constructed for defense.

In , the Counts Palatine were granted far-reaching rights in the Golden Bull , in addition to becoming Electors. Heidelberg University played a leading part in the era of humanism and the Reformation, and the conflict between Lutheranism and Calvinism, in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Heidelberg's library, founded in , is the oldest existing public library in Germany. In April , a few months after proclaiming his Ninety-five Theses , Martin Luther was received in Heidelberg, to defend them.

In , the castle located higher up the mountain was destroyed by a gunpowder explosion. The duke's palace was built at the site of the lower castle.

Elector Frederick III , sovereign of the Electoral Palatinate from to , commissioned the composition of a new Catechism for his territory.

While the catechism's introduction credits the "entire theological faculty here" at the University of Heidelberg and "all the superintendents and prominent servants of the church" for the composition of the catechism, Zacharius Ursinus is commonly regarded as the catechism's principal author.

Caspar Olevianus — was formerly asserted as a co-author of the document, though this theory has been largely discarded by modern scholarship.

Frederick himself wrote the preface to the Catechism and closely oversaw its composition and publication. Frederick, who was officially Lutheran but had strong Reformed leanings, wanted to even out the religious situation of his highly Lutheran territory within the primarily Catholic Holy Roman Empire.

The Council of Trent had just concluded with its conclusions and decrees against the Protestant faiths, and the Peace of Augsburg had only granted toleration for Lutheranism within the empire where the ruler was Lutheran.

One of the aims of the catechism was to counteract the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as well as Anabaptists and "strict" Gnesio-Lutherans like Tilemann Heshusius and Matthias Flacius , who were resisting Frederick's Reformed influences, particularly on the matter of Eucharist the Lord's Supper.

The Catechism-based each of its statements on biblical proof-texts, and Frederick himself would defend it as biblical, not reformed, at the Diet of Augsburg when he was called to answer to charges of violating the Peace of Augsburg.

Frederick became known as the "Winter King", as he reigned for only one winter before the Imperial House of Habsburg regained the crown by force.

His overthrow in marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In , after a siege of two months , the armies of the Catholic League , commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly , captured the town.

In late , after the Swedish army had conquered Heidelberg, imperialist forces attempted to take back the city. They quickly took the city, but were unable to take the castle.

They ended the siege and drove off the Catholic forces. The Germans rejected the claim, in part because of religious differences between local Protestants and the French Catholics, as the Protestant Reformation had divided the peoples of Europe.

The War of the Grand Alliance ensued. In , French troops took the town and castle, bringing nearly total destruction to the area in As a result of the destruction due to repeated French invasions related to the War of the Palatinate Succession coupled with severe winters, thousands of Protestant German Palatines emigrated from the lower Palatinate in the early 18th century.

They fled to other European cities and especially to London where the refugees were called "the poor Palatines". In sympathy for the Protestants, in —, Queen Anne's government arranged transport for nearly 6, Palatines to New York.

Others were transported to Pennsylvania , and to South Carolina. They worked their passage and later settled in the English colonies there. In , after assigning a major church for exclusively Catholic use, religious conflicts with the mostly Protestant inhabitants of Heidelberg caused the Roman Catholic Prince-Elector Charles III Philip to transfer his residence to nearby Mannheim.

The court remained there until the Elector Charles Theodore became Elector of Bavaria in and established his court in Munich. In Elector Charles Theodore began rebuilding the Palace.

In , a lightning bolt destroyed other palace buildings during reconstruction, causing the work to be discontinued.

Heidelberg fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in Notable scholars soon earned it a reputation as a "royal residence of the intellect".

In the 18th century, the town was rebuilt in the Baroque style on the old medieval layout. In the French revolution refugee Count Charles Graimberg began to preserve the palace ruins and establish a historical collection.

In , the German National Assembly was held there. In , during the Palatinate-Baden rebellion of the Revolutions , Heidelberg was the headquarters of a revolutionary army.

It was defeated by a Prussian army near Waghaeusel. The city was occupied by Prussian troops until By , one-third of the university's teaching staff had been forced out for racial and political reasons.

The non-Aryan professors were ejected in , within one month of Hitler's rise to power. The lists of those to be deported were prepared beforehand.

A few months later, the inauguration of the huge Ehrenfriedhof memorial cemetery completed the second and last NSDAP project in Heidelberg.

This cemetery is on the southern side of the old part of town, a little south of the Königstuhl hilltop, and faces west towards France. During the Kristallnacht on November 9, , Nazis burned down synagogues at two locations in the city.

The next day, they started the systematic deportation of Jews, sending to Dachau concentration camp. Within a few months, as many as of them from Heidelberg died of hunger and disease.

On March 29, , German troops left the city after destroying three arches of the old bridge, Heidelberg's treasured river crossing.

They also destroyed the more modern bridge downstream. The U. Army 63rd Infantry , 7th Army entered the town on March 30, The civilian population surrendered without resistance.

Heidelberg, unlike many other cities in Germany, was not targeted by Allied bombing raids during the war. Army wanted to use the city as a garrison after the war, but, as Heidelberg was neither an industrial center nor a transport hub, it did not present a tactical or strategic target.

Other notable university towns, such as Tübingen and Göttingen , were spared bombing as well. Allied air raids focused extensively on the nearby industrial cities of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen.

Army may have chosen Heidelberg as a garrison base because of its excellent infrastructure, including the Heidelberg-Mannheim Autobahn motorway , which connected to the Mannheim-Darmstadt-Frankfurt Autobahn, and the U.

Army installations in Mannheim and Frankfurt. The intact rail infrastructure was more important in the late s and early s when most heavy loads were still carried by train, not by truck.

Heidelberg had the untouched Wehrmacht barracks, the "Grossdeutschland Kaserne" which the US Army occupied soon after, renaming it the Campbell Barracks.

In the university was reopened relatively quickly on the initiative of a small group of professors, among whom were the anti-Nazi economist Alfred Weber and the philosopher Karl Jaspers.

Patton had a car accident in the adjacent city of Mannheim and died in the Heidelberg US Army hospital on December 21, The funeral ceremony was held at the Heidelberg-Weststadt Christuskirche Christ Church , and he was buried in the 3rd Army cemetery in Luxembourg.

During the post-war military occupation , the U. Army used the Thingstätte for cultural and religious events. Civilian use started in the early to mids for occasional concerts and other cultural events.

Today, the celebrations on Hexennacht "Witches' Night" , also called Walpurgis Night , the night of April 30, are a regular "underground" fixture at the Thingstätte.

Thousands of mostly young people congregate there to drum, to breathe fire, and to juggle. The event has gained fame throughout the region, as well as a certain notoriety due to the amount of litter left behind.

The population of the city of Heidelberg exceeded , for the first time in It is a city with an international population, including one of the largest American communities outside North America, but this is not analysed in the Heidelberg population statistics.

At the end of December , the city had , inhabitants with an official primary residence in Heidelberg not including the soldiers and employees of the U.

Army and their dependents, a total of about 20, people , a historic high. The following table shows the number of inhabitants within the boundaries of the city at the time.

To they are mostly estimates, then census results or official updates of the statistical offices of the time or the city administration.

The data refer from to the "local population", from to the resident population and since the "population at the site of their main dwelling.

With a fertility rate of 1. Since , the Oberbürgermeister lord mayor of Heidelberg has been the independent Eckart Würzner.

The council consists of 48 volunteer members with the mayor as chairman. The council is directly elected for a term of five years.

The task of the council is to decide all the affairs of the city, with the mayor presiding. The council controls the city administration and oversees the enforcement of its decisions.

Heidelberg has always been a stronghold of the Greens. Together they gained 10 seats to become the strongest force for the first time.

HD, they formed the largest group in the council. Religion in Heidelberg [22] [23]. The "old town" German: Altstadt , on the south bank of the Neckar, is long and narrow.

It is dominated by the ruins of Heidelberg Castle , 80 metres above the Neckar on the steep wooded slopes of the Königstuhl King's chair or throne hill.

The castle is a mix of styles from Gothic to Renaissance. Prince Elector Ruprecht III — erected the first building in the inner courtyard as a royal residence.

The building was divided into a ground floor made of stone and framework upper levels. Another royal building is located opposite the Ruprecht Building: the Fountain Hall.

Prince Elector Philipp — is said to have arranged the transfer of the hall's columns from a decayed palace of Charlemagne from Ingelheim to Heidelberg.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Prince Electors added two palace buildings and turned the fortress into a castle.

The two dominant buildings at the eastern and northern side of the courtyard were erected during the rule of Ottheinrich — and Friedrich IV — Under Friedrich V — , the main building of the west side was erected, the so-called "English Building".

The castle and its garden were destroyed several times during the Thirty Years' War and the Palatine War of Succession.

As Prince Elector Karl Theodor tried to restore the castle, lightning struck in , and ended all attempts at rebuilding.

Later on, the castle was misused as a quarry; stones from the castle were taken to build new houses in Heidelberg. This was stopped in by Count Charles de Graimberg, who then began the process of preserving the castle.

Although the interior is in Gothic style, the King's Hall was not built until Today, the hall is used for festivities, e. During the Heidelberg Castle Festival in the summer, the courtyard is the site of open air musicals, operas, theatre performances, and classical concerts performed by the Heidelberg Philharmonics.

The castle is surrounded by a park, where the famous poet Johann von Goethe once walked. The Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway runs from Kornmakt to the summit of the Königstuhl via the castle.

The castle looks over the entire city of Heidelberg and the Neckar Valley. On the northern side of the Neckar is located the Heiligenberg Saints' Mountain , along the side of which runs the Philosophers' Walk German: Philosophenweg , with scenic views of the old town and castle.

Traditionally, Heidelberg's philosophers and university professors would walk and talk along the pathway. Farther up the mountain lie the ruined 11th-century Monastery of St.

Michael , the smaller Monastery of St. Stephen, a Nazi-era amphitheater, the so-called Pagan's hole and the remains of an earthen Celtic hill fort from the 4th century BC.

There are many historical churches in Heidelberg and its surroundings. It is one of the few buildings to survive the many wars during the past centuries.

It was rebuilt after the French set fire to it in during the War of the Palatinian Succession. The church has remains of the tombs and epitaphs of the past Palatinate electors.

This Church stands in the Marktplatz next to the seat of local government. It had previously been split by a partition and used by both congregations.

In the separating wall was removed. The church is now exclusively used by Protestants. Furthermore, there is the Catholic Church of the Jesuits.

Its construction began in It was completed with the addition of a bell tower from to The oldest church in Heidelberg is the St. Peter's Church now Lutheran.

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Horse Racing Germany has a superfluity of Horse Racing tracks. Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west.

In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain , Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average.

The hillsides of the Odenwald favour clouding and precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. According to the German Meteorological Service , Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in Between , and , years ago [ citation needed ] , " Heidelberg Man " died at nearby Mauer.

His jaw bone was discovered in Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg , or "Holy Mountain".

Both places can still be identified. They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements that developed.

The Romans remained until AD, when the camp was conquered by Germanic tribes. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum.

Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century. The village Bergheim "Mountain Home" is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to AD.

Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg. The people gradually converted to Christianity. In AD, the monastery of St.

Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around , the Neuburg Monastery was founded in the Neckar valley.

At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey in Modern Heidelberg can trace its roots to this 12th-century monastery.

The first reference to Heidelberg can be found in a document in Schönau Abbey dated to This is considered to be the town's founding date.

In , Heidelberg castle and its neighboring settlement were taken over by the house of Hohenstaufen. In , the Electorate of the Palatinate passed to the House of Welf through marriage.

In , Ludwig I, Duke of Bavaria acquired the Palatinate, as a consequence of which the castle came under his control. By , another castle had been constructed for defense.

In , the Counts Palatine were granted far-reaching rights in the Golden Bull , in addition to becoming Electors. Heidelberg University played a leading part in the era of humanism and the Reformation, and the conflict between Lutheranism and Calvinism, in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Heidelberg's library, founded in , is the oldest existing public library in Germany. In April , a few months after proclaiming his Ninety-five Theses , Martin Luther was received in Heidelberg, to defend them.

In , the castle located higher up the mountain was destroyed by a gunpowder explosion. The duke's palace was built at the site of the lower castle. Elector Frederick III , sovereign of the Electoral Palatinate from to , commissioned the composition of a new Catechism for his territory.

While the catechism's introduction credits the "entire theological faculty here" at the University of Heidelberg and "all the superintendents and prominent servants of the church" for the composition of the catechism, Zacharius Ursinus is commonly regarded as the catechism's principal author.

Caspar Olevianus — was formerly asserted as a co-author of the document, though this theory has been largely discarded by modern scholarship.

Frederick himself wrote the preface to the Catechism and closely oversaw its composition and publication. Frederick, who was officially Lutheran but had strong Reformed leanings, wanted to even out the religious situation of his highly Lutheran territory within the primarily Catholic Holy Roman Empire.

The Council of Trent had just concluded with its conclusions and decrees against the Protestant faiths, and the Peace of Augsburg had only granted toleration for Lutheranism within the empire where the ruler was Lutheran.

One of the aims of the catechism was to counteract the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as well as Anabaptists and "strict" Gnesio-Lutherans like Tilemann Heshusius and Matthias Flacius , who were resisting Frederick's Reformed influences, particularly on the matter of Eucharist the Lord's Supper.

The Catechism-based each of its statements on biblical proof-texts, and Frederick himself would defend it as biblical, not reformed, at the Diet of Augsburg when he was called to answer to charges of violating the Peace of Augsburg.

Frederick became known as the "Winter King", as he reigned for only one winter before the Imperial House of Habsburg regained the crown by force.

His overthrow in marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In , after a siege of two months , the armies of the Catholic League , commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly , captured the town.

In late , after the Swedish army had conquered Heidelberg, imperialist forces attempted to take back the city. They quickly took the city, but were unable to take the castle.

They ended the siege and drove off the Catholic forces. The Germans rejected the claim, in part because of religious differences between local Protestants and the French Catholics, as the Protestant Reformation had divided the peoples of Europe.

The War of the Grand Alliance ensued. In , French troops took the town and castle, bringing nearly total destruction to the area in As a result of the destruction due to repeated French invasions related to the War of the Palatinate Succession coupled with severe winters, thousands of Protestant German Palatines emigrated from the lower Palatinate in the early 18th century.

They fled to other European cities and especially to London where the refugees were called "the poor Palatines".

In sympathy for the Protestants, in —, Queen Anne's government arranged transport for nearly 6, Palatines to New York. Others were transported to Pennsylvania , and to South Carolina.

They worked their passage and later settled in the English colonies there. In , after assigning a major church for exclusively Catholic use, religious conflicts with the mostly Protestant inhabitants of Heidelberg caused the Roman Catholic Prince-Elector Charles III Philip to transfer his residence to nearby Mannheim.

The court remained there until the Elector Charles Theodore became Elector of Bavaria in and established his court in Munich.

In Elector Charles Theodore began rebuilding the Palace. In , a lightning bolt destroyed other palace buildings during reconstruction, causing the work to be discontinued.

Heidelberg fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in Notable scholars soon earned it a reputation as a "royal residence of the intellect".

In the 18th century, the town was rebuilt in the Baroque style on the old medieval layout. In the French revolution refugee Count Charles Graimberg began to preserve the palace ruins and establish a historical collection.

In , the German National Assembly was held there. In , during the Palatinate-Baden rebellion of the Revolutions , Heidelberg was the headquarters of a revolutionary army.

It was defeated by a Prussian army near Waghaeusel. The city was occupied by Prussian troops until By , one-third of the university's teaching staff had been forced out for racial and political reasons.

The non-Aryan professors were ejected in , within one month of Hitler's rise to power. The lists of those to be deported were prepared beforehand. A few months later, the inauguration of the huge Ehrenfriedhof memorial cemetery completed the second and last NSDAP project in Heidelberg.

This cemetery is on the southern side of the old part of town, a little south of the Königstuhl hilltop, and faces west towards France. During the Kristallnacht on November 9, , Nazis burned down synagogues at two locations in the city.

The next day, they started the systematic deportation of Jews, sending to Dachau concentration camp. Within a few months, as many as of them from Heidelberg died of hunger and disease.

On March 29, , German troops left the city after destroying three arches of the old bridge, Heidelberg's treasured river crossing. They also destroyed the more modern bridge downstream.

The U. Army 63rd Infantry , 7th Army entered the town on March 30, The civilian population surrendered without resistance. Heidelberg, unlike many other cities in Germany, was not targeted by Allied bombing raids during the war.

Army wanted to use the city as a garrison after the war, but, as Heidelberg was neither an industrial center nor a transport hub, it did not present a tactical or strategic target.

Other notable university towns, such as Tübingen and Göttingen , were spared bombing as well. Allied air raids focused extensively on the nearby industrial cities of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen.

Army may have chosen Heidelberg as a garrison base because of its excellent infrastructure, including the Heidelberg-Mannheim Autobahn motorway , which connected to the Mannheim-Darmstadt-Frankfurt Autobahn, and the U.

Army installations in Mannheim and Frankfurt. The intact rail infrastructure was more important in the late s and early s when most heavy loads were still carried by train, not by truck.

Heidelberg had the untouched Wehrmacht barracks, the "Grossdeutschland Kaserne" which the US Army occupied soon after, renaming it the Campbell Barracks.

In the university was reopened relatively quickly on the initiative of a small group of professors, among whom were the anti-Nazi economist Alfred Weber and the philosopher Karl Jaspers.

Patton had a car accident in the adjacent city of Mannheim and died in the Heidelberg US Army hospital on December 21, The funeral ceremony was held at the Heidelberg-Weststadt Christuskirche Christ Church , and he was buried in the 3rd Army cemetery in Luxembourg.

During the post-war military occupation , the U. Army used the Thingstätte for cultural and religious events.

Civilian use started in the early to mids for occasional concerts and other cultural events. Today, the celebrations on Hexennacht "Witches' Night" , also called Walpurgis Night , the night of April 30, are a regular "underground" fixture at the Thingstätte.

Thousands of mostly young people congregate there to drum, to breathe fire, and to juggle. The event has gained fame throughout the region, as well as a certain notoriety due to the amount of litter left behind.

The population of the city of Heidelberg exceeded , for the first time in It is a city with an international population, including one of the largest American communities outside North America, but this is not analysed in the Heidelberg population statistics.

At the end of December , the city had , inhabitants with an official primary residence in Heidelberg not including the soldiers and employees of the U.

Army and their dependents, a total of about 20, people , a historic high. The following table shows the number of inhabitants within the boundaries of the city at the time.

To they are mostly estimates, then census results or official updates of the statistical offices of the time or the city administration.

The data refer from to the "local population", from to the resident population and since the "population at the site of their main dwelling.

With a fertility rate of 1. Since , the Oberbürgermeister lord mayor of Heidelberg has been the independent Eckart Würzner.

The council consists of 48 volunteer members with the mayor as chairman. The council is directly elected for a term of five years.

The task of the council is to decide all the affairs of the city, with the mayor presiding. The council controls the city administration and oversees the enforcement of its decisions.

Heidelberg has always been a stronghold of the Greens. Together they gained 10 seats to become the strongest force for the first time.

HD, they formed the largest group in the council. Religion in Heidelberg [22] [23]. The "old town" German: Altstadt , on the south bank of the Neckar, is long and narrow.

It is dominated by the ruins of Heidelberg Castle , 80 metres above the Neckar on the steep wooded slopes of the Königstuhl King's chair or throne hill.

The castle is a mix of styles from Gothic to Renaissance. Prince Elector Ruprecht III — erected the first building in the inner courtyard as a royal residence.

The building was divided into a ground floor made of stone and framework upper levels. Another royal building is located opposite the Ruprecht Building: the Fountain Hall.

Prince Elector Philipp — is said to have arranged the transfer of the hall's columns from a decayed palace of Charlemagne from Ingelheim to Heidelberg.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Prince Electors added two palace buildings and turned the fortress into a castle. The two dominant buildings at the eastern and northern side of the courtyard were erected during the rule of Ottheinrich — and Friedrich IV — Under Friedrich V — , the main building of the west side was erected, the so-called "English Building".

The castle and its garden were destroyed several times during the Thirty Years' War and the Palatine War of Succession.

As Prince Elector Karl Theodor tried to restore the castle, lightning struck in , and ended all attempts at rebuilding.

Later on, the castle was misused as a quarry; stones from the castle were taken to build new houses in Heidelberg. This was stopped in by Count Charles de Graimberg, who then began the process of preserving the castle.

Although the interior is in Gothic style, the King's Hall was not built until Today, the hall is used for festivities, e. During the Heidelberg Castle Festival in the summer, the courtyard is the site of open air musicals, operas, theatre performances, and classical concerts performed by the Heidelberg Philharmonics.

The castle is surrounded by a park, where the famous poet Johann von Goethe once walked. The Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway runs from Kornmakt to the summit of the Königstuhl via the castle.

The castle looks over the entire city of Heidelberg and the Neckar Valley. On the northern side of the Neckar is located the Heiligenberg Saints' Mountain , along the side of which runs the Philosophers' Walk German: Philosophenweg , with scenic views of the old town and castle.

Traditionally, Heidelberg's philosophers and university professors would walk and talk along the pathway. Farther up the mountain lie the ruined 11th-century Monastery of St.

Michael , the smaller Monastery of St. Stephen, a Nazi-era amphitheater, the so-called Pagan's hole and the remains of an earthen Celtic hill fort from the 4th century BC.

There are many historical churches in Heidelberg and its surroundings. It is one of the few buildings to survive the many wars during the past centuries.

It was rebuilt after the French set fire to it in during the War of the Palatinian Succession. The church has remains of the tombs and epitaphs of the past Palatinate electors.

This Church stands in the Marktplatz next to the seat of local government. It had previously been split by a partition and used by both congregations.

In the separating wall was removed. The church is now exclusively used by Protestants. Furthermore, there is the Catholic Church of the Jesuits.

Its construction began in It was completed with the addition of a bell tower from to The oldest church in Heidelberg is the St.

Peter's Church now Lutheran. It was built some time during the 12th century. Heidelberg is known for its institutions of higher education.

The most famous of those is Heidelberg University Founded in , it is one of Europe's oldest institutions. In fact, Heidelberg is the oldest university town of today's Germany.

The campus is situated in two urban areas and several buildings. In numerous historical buildings in the old town there are the Faculties of the Humanities , the Social Science and the Faculty of Law.

The school of applied sciences is located in the Science Tower in Wieblingen. The campus of Heidelberg University has a total undergraduate enrollment of 30, as of The enrollment rate of this university is Less than 20 percent of the total student body is international.

This university has many areas of study for national students such as; theology, law, philosophy, modern languages, economics, and social sciences.

The university does not charge students for tuition. The school's academic calendar is semester based, and the majority of the language for instruction is in German.

For international students the academic calendar is based on a block schedule. The international students attend in block periods of 5 weeks.

The University or "Uni" is spread across three campuses each containing different fields of study. It comprises nine branches specializing in both religion and Jewish culture.

The Schiller International University , a private American university is also represented with a campus in Heidelberg offering several undergraduate and graduate programs in the fields of International Business and International Relations and Diplomacy.

In addition to the research centers and institutes of the university, there are numerous research institutions situated in the city of Heidelberg.

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